(Yuki Sudo, Akihisa Terakita, Hideki Kandori, Biophysics and Physicobiology 20, e201001 (2023), DOI: 10.2142/biophysico.bppb-v20.s001)
Rhodopsin, a family of photoreceptive proteins, has vitamin-A aldehyde retinal as a chromophore within the multiple transmembrane domain and is called as retinal protein. Retinal proteins play central roles in photoreception of animals and microorganisms. In addition, they are used as tools for optogenetics. Since the first molecule of retinal proteins was identified in frog retina in 1876, a variety of retinal proteins have been discovered and analyzed in various aspects, such as molecular structure, function, physiology and optogenetic application. We envision that the progressive analysis of retinal proteins will provide a bright future in science.